The commitment of Saudi Arabia to achieve net-zero carbon emission has induced for the first time interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). The northern coastal rift basins of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia are filled by thick syn-rift siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. These basins have potential for geological disposal of CO2 industrial emissions in saline aquifers. The Midyan basin, located at the juncture of the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aqaba, was selected for detailed basin analysis because it has the most available geological data from outcrop and subsurface.
This study aims to investigate the syn-rift stratigraphy and sedimentary evolution of the Midyan Basin, in order to gain insights into the distribution and heterogeneity of potential reservoir rocks. To do this, the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Midyan Basin was analyzed based on a literature review, outcrop study, and seismic interpretation. A new geological model of the syn-rift stratigraphy and sedimentary evolution was proposed by integrating all of the geological data and interpretations. Forward Stratigraphic Modelling (FSM) was then carried out using DionisosFlow Software, to reproduce in 3D the stratigraphy, depositional environments, and lithologic distribution of the syn-rift units. A best-fitting model was obtained, which is well calibrated with geological observations and seismic data. The model reveals that syn-rift formations, especially the Burqan Formation, have large amounts of sandstone in the basin center that offer good reservoir potential for CO2 storage. Future study is required to increase the resolution of the FSM in order to further characterize the reservoir heterogeneity and understand the CO2 trapping mechanisms.